The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) administers the provision of healthcare to beneficiaries in the United States. The goal of healthcare public policy is to balance needs with available and limited resources. Busy clinicians focus on the ability to maximize functional outcomes for patients while being good stewards of the resources and complying with policy. When treating a Medicare or Medicaid beneficiary, established policy must be a consideration from the initial patient encounter to final delivery, follow-up, and billing. The well-rounded O&P professional concerned with quality patient care must also stay abreast of the changing landscape of policy.