Technological advances in prosthetic care have a long history. Archeologists have unearthed evidence of prosthetic treatment from nearly five millennia ago, according to “The History of Prosthetics,” an online article by Mary Bellis. Fifth-century Dorian Greek historian Herodotus (also known as the “father of history”) wrote one of the earliest known references to a prosthesis, according to Bellis, when he cited the story of a prisoner who escaped from chains by cutting off his foot, later replacing it with a wooden substitute. We now fast forward to the 21st century, which is seeing prosthetic research bursting forth and sprouting in many new directions-from neuroprosthetics, to osseointegration, to increasingly sophisticated computerized prostheses, to lighter, stronger, more comfortable and durable materials. Hefty funding from the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is fueling research in the wake of military men and women suffering limb loss from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Going hand-in-hand with prosthetic technology are advances in other rehabilitation specialties, including amputation surgical techniques. This article will focus on amputation-related surgery, updating advances in two aspects: osseointegration and an osteomyoplastic surgical technique thought to better prepare a residual limb for optimal prosthesis use and function.